Beryllium (atomic symbol: Be, atomic number: 4) is a Block S, Group 2, Period 2 element with a total of 4 electrons in its outer shell. It has a Van der Waals radius of 153 pm.
/TOXICITY: Acute exposure to beryllium nitrate causes acute irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract as well as pulmonary edema in some individuals. Use protective clothing, self-contained breathing apparatus, goggles and gloves when handling this material.
Exposure to beryllium nitrate increases its concentration in liver, kidney and serum causing significant alterations in the activity of CYP-450 2E1 system, microsomal lipid peroxidation and protein; alkaline phosphtase, lactate dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, bilirubin, creatinine and urea in serum, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase and succinic dehydrogenase in liver and kidney; triglycerides, cholesterol, glycogen contents, hepatic and renal glutathione levels; protein content, hepatic and renal triglyceride metabolism, hepatic oxidative status, and hepatorenal morphology and ultramorphology in the liver, kidney, spleen and heart.
The hepatic and renal histopathological lesions induced by beryllium nitrate were less marked in rats treated with 2,3-dimercaptopropane 1-sulfonate at 50 mg/kg compared with those treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid. Moreover, meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acids and 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate at a dose of 50 mg/kg reduced the beryllium concentration in liver, spleen and kidneys. It also exhibited antiproliferative effects. Similarly, treatment with Tiron significantly reduced the beryllium concentration in liver and kidney. Its therapeutic potential was further confirmed by atomic adsorption spectrophotometry. Considering the high bioavailability of Tiron, it may be used as a safe and effective alternative to chelating agents like calcium disodium EDTA for reducing beryllium toxicity in animals.