The atomic number of an element is the total number of protons and electrons that make up the nucleus of an atom. A californium atom has ninety-eight protons and ninety-eight electrons.
Neutrons are neutral particles that stabilize the atom’s nucleus. They offset electrical repulsion between the protons. When the ratio of protons to neutrons becomes too great or too little, the atom’s nucleus can become unstable and undergo radioactive decay.
Electron configuration of Californium is [Rn] 5f10 7s2.
The number of valence electrons in an element determines how it will behave when bonded with other elements. A californium atom can have eighteen valence electrons.
First ionization energy of Californium is 6.3 eV.
The first ionization energy is the energy that is required to remove the outermost electron from an atom. Ionization energies are often measured in eV and expressed as the ionization potential.
Oxidation state of Californianium is +3
An oxidation state of an element is the way that an atom will change after an electron has been removed from it or an electron has been added to it. This can be different for each element.
Californium is a member of the actinide group. It is a relatively heavy element that can be used in nuclear power plants to generate electricity. It is also used in radiation therapy to treat certain cervical and brain cancers that cannot be treated by other means.
It is produced in the United States and Russia by nuclear chain reactors. It can be used to produce gamma rays and beta particles that are useful for various industrial applications. It is also used in well logging, the determination of water and oil-bearing layers in underground rocks. It is also an efficient source of fission neutrons.