What is Black Phosphorus Graphite Composite?


Aug 19, 2023

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Black Phosphorus Graphite Composite is made of graphite and Black phosphorus. Black phosphorus, or BP, is a promising anode material due to its high conductivity (both electronic and ionic) and theoretical capacity. It is important to understand the redox reactions that occur between BP and alkali ions in order to determine the limitations and potential of BP.
Scientists from the University of Science and Technology of China’s Professor Ji Hengxing published a research result in “Science” a few weeks ago. They made a significant breakthrough in their research of lithium-ion electrode materials.
Ji Hengxing stated that “if we use this technology, we may be able fully charge an electrical car in around 10 minutes and travel about 500 kilometers.” The charging time of electric cars has always been a major problem. Electric vehicles are currently “waiting” an hour before they can drive 500 kilometers. Electric vehicles have always aimed to develop large-capacity Li-ion batteries that can be charged quickly.
The material of the electrode is an important factor when determining battery performance indicators. “To increase battery charging speed you need material with fast electrochemical reactions.” It is important to check if the electrode material can conduct electrons andions. Ji Hingxing, a member of the research group, said that they hope to find an electrode material capable of meeting the industry’s expectations for comprehensive performance indicators and also adapting to the industrial production process.
The first author, Dr. Hongchang Jin said, “Energy enters or exits the battery via the chemical reactions between lithium ions, and electrode materials. Determining the charging rate is based on the conductivity between the electrode materials and lithium ions. It is important to consider the amount.”
The Jixingxing research team discovered that black phosphorus was a good choice. Its theoretical capability is high and only second to single-crystal lithium or metallic silicon. Second, because it is a semi-conductor, its ability to conduct electronic currents is strong. Third, the black sheet phosphorus structure is layered and the lithium ions can easily be conducted between its layers. This excellent property makes black phosphorus an electrode material which can be used to fast charge lithium-ion batteries.
Black phosphorus (an allotrope to white phosphorus) is an excellent electrode material for fast charging. However, current studies found that there was a gap between black phosphorus’s comprehensive performance indicators and the expectations. Black phosphorus can be damaged by the edges of the layered structures, and its measured performance is lower than expected. Ji Xingxing adopted a strategy called “interface Engineering” to link black phosphorus with graphite using covalent bonds between phosphorus and carbon. This made the structure more stable and allowed lithium ions into the black phosphorus to be more easily absorbed.

The electrode material will also be covered in chemicals to decompose electrolyte slowly during the process. Some substances can prevent lithium ions getting into the electrode material. This is similar to how dust on glass surfaces blocks light. To achieve this, the team of researchers applied clothing to the composite material. The team used a thin layer of polymer gel as a dustproof coat to “wear” on the surface the black graphite composite material. This allowed lithium ions to easily enter.
“This black phosphorous material has achieved an unprecedented performance breakthrough under the interface optimized of these two levels.” Ji Hingxing told the media.

“We use traditional process routes and parameters to convert the black-phosphorous composite material into electrode sheets.” Laboratory measurements show that electrode sheets can recover up to 80% after just 9 minutes and still retain 90% of their capacity after 2000 charging cycles. Xin, a cofirst author of the article and a researcher from the Institute of Chemistry of Chinese Academy of Sciences said that if mass-production of this material is possible, matching cathode products and other auxiliary substances can be found, an optimized design should achieve an energy density of 350 Wh. It has a lithium ion battery that can be charged quickly and is capable of delivering 350 Wh/Kg. The battery will enable electric vehicles with a range of up to 1,000 kilometres, and the experience for electric vehicle users will be improved.
Jixingxing will continue its exploration in the areas of basic research, scale preparation technology and other related fields. For battery technology to advance and for electric vehicles and consumer electronics to develop, a deep understanding of scientific fundamentals is needed. This includes the microstructure of electrode materials and their physical and chemical properties. “To realize this vision, a lot more work is needed, but the future looks bright.” Ji Hengxing spoke.
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