Nano diamond has been widely studied in biological, electronic and quantum engineering fields


Apr 22, 2023 ,

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Overview of Nano diamond The nano-diamonds, also known as diamond nanoparticles, are diamonds smaller than 1 micron in diameter and can be made from an impact event like an earthquake or meteorite strike. Due to its low cost, ease of large-scale synthetic, surface functionalization, high biocompatibility and easy synthesis, nano diamond has been extensively studied in the electronic, biological and quantum engineering areas.
Structure of nanodiamond
It is important to consider three main aspects of the structure and function of diamond nanoparticles. The shape of diamond nuclei was determined using diffraction experiments. The diamond cage is the core of diamond nanoparticles. It is mostly made of carbon. Although the structure is very similar, the diamond nanoparticles’ surface is almost identical to graphite. A recent study revealed that the surface is primarily composed of carbon. However, it also contains phenol, pyrrole and sulfonic, as well as small amounts of carboxylic, hydrol, and epoxy groups. Sometimes, there are defects in the structure of diamond-nanoparticles. A recent study has shown that the frequency and size of nitrogen-vacancy center decreases with diamond nanoparticles.
Methods for producing nano-diamonds
Other than the explosion, other synthesis methods include hydrothermal, ion bombardment and laser bombardment, microwave crystal chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD), ultrasonic synthesizing, and electrochemical. High-purity nanoparticles can also be produced by high-pressure and high-temperature graphite C3N4 decomposition. For commercial production of Nano Diamonds, the industry standard is detonation-synthesis. The most common explosive used to produce them is a mixture trinitrotoluene/hexose/monosaccharide.
Detonation is usually performed in an enclosed, oxygen-free stainless metal chamber. It produces a mixture Nano diamonds as well as other graphite compound averaging 5 nanometers. Nano diamonds can only be created by detonation synthesis if there is no oxygen. This happens at temperatures above 3000K and pressures over 15 GPa. To prevent diamond nanoparticles from forming, the oxidation system must be rapidly cooled to increase the production of Nano-diamonds. This is because diamond remains the most stable under such conditions. Detonation synthesizers use liquid and gas coolants like water, water-based mousse and ice. Detonation results in synthesis, which is a mixture nano diamond particles and graphite carbon forms. Therefore, thorough cleaning must be done to remove all impurities. To remove metal impurities and SP2 carbon, you can use either gaseous or solution phase Nitric Acid Oxidation.
Application prospect of Nano diamond
Nano diamond’s strength, hardness, thermal conductivity and biocompatibility are unique, making it a popular choice for precision polishing, lubrication and high-performance metal matrix composites.
The Nano diamond material is an extremely versatile material, with many connotations and rich characteristics. This is a field that presents great opportunities and challenges. Nano diamond is a product of years of research and production. This material can be used to produce raw materials for the defense industry, precision polishing industry, biomedicine, electronic, chemical, and other national economies. I believe there will be a large-scale application of Nano diamond in many industries in the near future.
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